The public has had a crash course in virology. But sometimes media coverage spews jargon so fast, often without definitions or descriptions, that I wonder to what degree readers or viewers know what terms like antibody, cytokine, or mRNA actually mean.
"Variant" is especially problematical, when coming after "viral," because it has a plain language meaning too – variation on a theme, something just a little bit different from what we're used to. But during an epidemic, a small genetic change can have sweeping consequences, fueling a pandemic.
Mutations Build Variants
Variants of SARS-CoV-2 – the COVID virus – are sets of mutations. A mutation is a specific change in a specific gene.
Different variants have some mutations in common, so it can get confusing. For example, three variants circulating in India each has 6 or 7 mutations, three in common. The first and second variants that were discovered each has a unique mutation, but the third variant is a subset of parts of the first two. Got that?
To continue reading, go to my DNA Science blog at Public Library of Science, where this post first appeared.